Fluency+ - Lets gets started

Reading fluency is the ability to quickly process letters, letters patterns, and words. Reading Fluency has been linked to comprehension, word identification, and vocabulary knowledge. Fluency+ is a simple, effective, research-based method that has been shown to enhance students’ reading fluency.

Establish baseline words per minute

Daily Activities (4-8 minutes per day)

Repeat benchmark (every 2-4 weeks)




Fluency+ contains three types of materials.

1. Really Silly Stories - .  From a neurocognitive perspective, the goal is to strengthen neural pathways and develop neural networks in order to enhance the speed of text processing.  The goal of Fluency Booster is to maximize the extent to which students encounter familiar words, letter patterns, and sentence structures.  Thus, a series of Really Silly Stories have been developed.  Really Silly Stories use repetition of words and phrases, and an abundance of sight words.  Each story is broken into 6 to 13 daily episodes.  Thus, students encounter familiar characters and situations over a one to two-week period.  And since students are naturally immersed in conversation every day, much of the text here contains dialogue. This type of fluency passage enables students to develop all three cueing systems (syntactic, semantic, and phonologic) at the same time they are developing reading fluency.  Each story is broken into daily sections or parts. There are 78 total lessons

2. Line graph 

3. Graded passages

Establish base level fluency in  words per minute (wpm)

Start by finding a base-level WPM (words per minute) reading rate by following the below steps.


1. Find a graded passage that is at or slightly above the student’s independent reading level. Free leveled passages can be accessed from one of the below sites.

Reading is Fundamental


Reading Vine

Mr. Anker’s Fluency Measures

2. Ask the student to read the passage aloud. Time the student.

3. Convert the time to total seconds. (For example, 1 minute and 30 seconds would be 90 total seconds). 

4. Divide the total seconds by 60. This will give you the time in minutes. (For example, 90 ÷ 60 = 1.5 minutes.) 

5. Divide the time in minutes by the total number of words to determine WPM. (For example, if the total number of words were 119. Pat read 119 words in 1.5 minutes. 119 ÷ 1.5 = 79 WPM.) This will be the WPM rate. 

Daily Short Passage Fluency (SPF) Activities (4-8 minutes)

Short Passage Fluency (SPF) is a repeated reading activity in which students read a short passage three times.  The total duration for this activity is approximately four to eight minutes.  These are the steps:

1.  Read the daily passage aloud to the student.  This reading provides an overview of the story for the student.  Ask the student to time you as you read to the 30- or 40-word mark . The 30- and 40-word marks on each daily passage are designated with red font that is underlined

2. Time the student as the daily passage is read (aloud) to the designated mark as you time that student.

3. Record the time it took the student to hit the designated mark.

4. Repeat this two more time for a total of three reads.

5. Using the line graph, have the student put dots graph to represent the times of each reading and connect the three dots. This enables the student to see the times getting faster with each reading which, in turn, helps to develop self-efficacy.

6. The next day, repeat this process with the next daily passage or part.

Bob wants a candy bar 

Level 1, 7 Parts

Biff Packs a lunch

Level 1, 13 Parts

Booper Chews Gum

Level 1, 10 Parts

Biff, Bopper, and the Frog

Level 1, 6 Parts

Jim and the Reading Elf

Level 1, 6 Parts

Bill, Monkey, and Socks

Level 1, 9 Parts

Sam, Pam, and the Zebra

Level 1, 6 Parts

A Really Dumb Story

Level 1, 8 Parts

Biff and Bopper Go Camping

Level 2, 5 Parts

Bill and the Monkey at Breakfast

Level 2, 7 Parts

You can print out the directions for fluency here.